Archive for the ‘Titles’ Category

Tip #170: Using subfields n & p in the 245 field

Subfields ‘n’ (number of part or section) and ‘p’ (name of part or section) often appear in the 245 field for video recordings, where they are used to identify episodes or seasons of television series. These subfields can also be used in MARC records for books when a series statement is inappropriate. This happens whenever the name of the part (the book) doesn’t make sense when separated from the common title (what would otherwise be the series).

Punctuation, capitalization and field order rules for these subfields are not intuitive. Here are the basics:

  1. Subfields ‘n’ and ‘p’ are considered part of the Title Proper. This means they come BEFORE subfields ‘b’ and ‘h’
  2. The first word of both subfields ‘n’ and ‘p’ is always capitalized
  3. Punctuation:
    1. Subfield ‘n’ is always preceded by a period
    2. Subfield ‘p’ is preceded by a period if it follows subfield ‘a’ but is preceded by a comma if it follows subfield ‘n’
  4. Consider repeating the contents of subfield ‘p’ in a 246 field if you think patrons may search by those words

Examples:

245 10 |a Inside the jewelry box. |n Volume 2 : |b a collector’s guide to costume jewelry : identification and values / |c Ann Mitchell Pitman. (Subfield n is always preceded by a period. Subfield n comes before subfield b)

245 00 |a Last of the summer wine. |p Vintage 1979 |h [videorecording] / |c written by Roy Clarke ; directed and produced by Sydney Lotterby. (Subfield p is preceded by a period because it follows a subfield a. Subfield p comes before the GMD)

245 00 |a Geochemical data from the departments of Choco and Antioquia, Colombia. |n Part B, |p Printout of analytical data |h [microform] / |c by U.S. Geological Survey Center for… (Subfield n is always preceded by a period. Subfield p is preceded by a comma here because it follows a subfield n.

245 00 |a Signing time! |n Volume 4, |p Family, feelings & fun |h [videorecording] / |c a Two Little Hands production ; created by Rachel de Azevedo Coleman…
246 3 |a Family, feelings & fun
246 3 |a Family, feelings and fun (Subfield p is repeated in a 246 because patrons may search by this part name.)

Originally published on March 8, 2013.


Tip #156: The first indicator in the 245 field is not always a ‘1’

The first indicator of the 245 field must be either a ‘1’ or a ‘0’. Which one to use is determined by whether or not the title is the main entry for the record.

What’s a main entry? It’s the primary heading for the resource you are cataloging. Added entries are the secondary headings. Subject headings (6xx fields) are always added entries. Remember card catalogs? The main and each added ‘entry’ had its own catalog card, with the heading typed at the very top.

How to tell if the 245 is the main entry:

  1. If there is a person or corporate body primarily responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of the resource, then that is the primary heading, or ‘main entry’. The name of the person or corporate body is in the 1xx field. The title of the resource (the 245 field) is then called the ‘added entry’ because it’s not the primary one.
  2. If there’s no person or corporate body that qualifies as a primary heading, then the title of the resource (the 245 field) is the main entry. There would be no 1xx field in the record. An exception to this would be if the title needs to be made either unique or consistent with the title given on other versions of the work. In that case, there would be a uniform title in a 130 field and that would be the main entry rather than the 245.

So here’s the rule: If a record has a 1xx field, then that field is the main entry. If a record does not have a 1xx field, then the title (the 245 field) is the main entry.

If the 245 field is the main entry, then the first indicator is a 0. If the 245 field is an added entry, then the first indicator is a 1.

IN A NUTSHELL: If there is a 1xx field, then the first indicator of the 245 is a 1. If there is no 1xx field, then the first indicator of the 245 is a 0.
Examples:

100 1_ |a Patterson, James, |d 1947-
245 10 |a Merry Christmas, Alex Cross / |c James Patterson.

(no 1xx field)
245 00 |a Autism all-stars : |b how we use our autism and Asperger traits to shine in life / |c edited by Josie Santomauro ; foreword by Tony Attwood.

(no 1xx field)
245 00 |a Paranormal activity |h [videorecording] / |c Blumhouse Productions ; screenplay by Oren Peli ; directed by Oren Peli.

Originally published on November 9, 2012.


Tip #138: Multiple Works by Same Author and No Collective Title

If the item being cataloged is made up of more than one work by the same author but does not have an inclusive, collective title, use subfield b for the subsequent title(s).

  • Separate the subsequent titles with a semicolon. This means subfield b is preceded by a semicolon, not a colon.
  • Transcribe the titles in the order they appear on the chief source of information.
  • Capitalize the first word of each title.
  • You can use an a 7xx field to provide access to the subsequent titles.
  • If a single subtitle applies to all works (by a single author), place it after all the titles, preceded by a colon.

Examples:

245 12 |a A Christmas kiss ;|b and, Winter wonderland /|c Elizabeth Mansfield.
740 02 |a Winter wonderland.

245 14 |a The cat in the hat |h[videorecording] ;|b The cat in the hat comes back ; Fox in socks /|c Random House Home Video.
740 42 |a The cat in the hat comes back.
740 02 |a Fox in socks.

245 10 |a Dinny and the witches ;|b and, The miracle worker : two plays.
740 42 |a The miracle worker.

Note that field 246 (varying form of title) is only used for titles related to the work selected as the title proper, not the subsequent titles listed in subfield b.

In cases where one of the works in a resource is predominant, do not follow these guidelines but use the predominant title as the title proper in the 245 and put the other title(s) in a 505 (contents note).
Originally published on June 22, 2012.


Tip #137: Capitalization in the 245 field

When entering a title in the 245 field, capitalize only the first word and proper names.

245 10 |a Guide to medicinal herbs
245 14 |a The private world of Georgette Heyer
245 14 |a The pirates of Somalia : |b inside their hidden world

This rule, however, is not as simple as it first appears. The ‘first word’ does not just mean the first word in the 245 |a, and ‘proper name’ is more complicated than just the name of a familiar place or a person’s name.

Capitalizing the first word in a title means capitalizing not just the first word of the title proper, but also the first word of any alternative, parallel, or quoted title that appears in the 245.

245 12 |a A gentleman of fortune, or, The suspicions of Miss Dido Kent
245 10 |a Readings from Leaves of grass
245 10 |a William Shakespeare’s The tempest
245 00 |a Como agua para chocolate |h [videorecording] = |b Like water for chocolate

Exception: If the first word of a title is preceded by a dash, do not capitalize.

245 10 |a -and they all lived happily ever after

If the 245 contains subfields ‘n’ or ‘p’ (for the name or number of a part or section), capitalize the first word in these subfields.

245 00 |a Deadliest catch. |n Season 6

Do not capitalize the first word of a general material designation (GMD)

245 10 |a South of Broad |h [sound recording]

Do capitalize governmental bodies, imaginary places, and political parties.

245 10 |a My life among the Democrats
245 10 |a Lost islands of Witch World
245 12 |a A soldier of the First Infantry Division

When editing a record, be careful not to change a word to lower case unless you’re sure it’s not a proper name. Sometimes it’s hard to tell.

245 10 |a Return to Harmony

Below are some of the rules regarding personal names. See Appendix A of the AACR2 for other capitalization rules.

  • Capitalize any title or term of honor or address that immediately precedes a personal name: Queen Elizabeth; President Obama; Senator Gifford.
  • Do not capitalize civil and military titles that does not precede a personal name: George Bush, president of the United States; John Roberts, chief justice of the Supreme Court; the U.S. Army chief of staff.
  • Capitalize titles of royalty or nobility even when not used with a particular person: Duke of Wellington; Prince of Wales.
  • Capitalize religious titles: Cardinal Richards; the Dalai Lama.
  • Capitalize a term of honor or respect: His Holiness; Her Royal Highness.

Originally published on June 15, 2012.


Tip #134: Where to find the correct title for a book

The chief source of information for the title of a book is the title page.

Always locate the title page and copy the title exactly as it appears there.

What is the title page? It’s a page at the beginning of the book that contains the title proper and usually the statement of responsibility (author, illustrator) and the name of the publisher. Some books contain not only a title page but some other pages that look almost like a title page.

Don’t be fooled! Always look first for a page that has both the title and publication information on it.
The title on the cover of a book sometimes differs from the title on the title page. Don’t get in a hurry and copy the title from the cover. This is not the chief source of information.

Sometimes there’s title information on the t.p. verso. Never copy title information from this page, either. The title on the t.p. verso may or may not match the title page because this information is CIP(Cataloging In Publication) data and the title may have changed by the time the book was actually published. (The t.p. verso is the page usually opposite the title page containing other information about the book such as the ISBNs, printing dates, Dewey numbers and subject headings.)

Sometimes publishers get fancy and stretch the title page into two pages.

You’ll see the title and publisher info on the right-hand page and the author and maybe a picture on the left. Together this is still the title page.

What happens if you’ve looked and looked and there really is no title page?

Sometimes, but not often, a book does not have a title page. In this case you have to locate the substitute title page, the page of the book that contains the most complete information. This can be the cover of the book, a caption, or the colophon. A colophon is a block of information at the end of a book that includes the title, author, and publication data. A caption is title information that appears on the first page of the text.

If there is no title page and you must copy the title proper from someplace else, add a 500 note stating the source of the title.

Example:

245 10 |a Spot goes to the beach / |c Eric Hill.
500 __ |a Cover title.

Originally published on May 25, 2012.


Tip #133: Dashes in the Title Proper (245 field)

Dashes are used in the 245 field to replace punctuation that could be confused with punctuation required by cataloging rules, such as colons and ellipsis. Whether or not you leave a space before or after a dash depends on what punctuation the dash is replacing.

If your title contains a colon that does NOT mean that what follows is a subtitle, replace the colon with either a dash or a comma. When using dashes to replace a colon, there are no spaces before or after the dash.

Example:

The title page reads: “Wanted: Dead or Alive”.
245 10 |a Wanted–dead or alive / |c Susan Lagrange. OR
245 10 |a Wanted, dead or alive / |c Susan Lagrange.

If your title contains an ellipsis that is not associated with the “.et al.” phrase, also replace this with a dash. In this case, leave a space after the dash but not before it unless the ellipsis is at the beginning of the title.

Examples:

Title page reads: “How to Do the Right Thing… and Live with the Consequences”.
245 10 |a How to do the right thing– and live with the consequences / |c by Robert Longwatch.

Title page reads: “…And So It Goes”
245 10 |a –and so it goes / |c Margaret Storm. (Note that the first word isn’t capitalized.)

Originally published on May 18, 2012.


Tip #128: Adding 246 fields to help patrons locate materials

The 246 field of the MARC record contains varying forms of the title of a work. If a title contains elements such as abbreviations, contractions, compound words, symbols, or numbers, catalogers can use this field to increase the odds that a patron will be able to locate the material in the Evergreen database.
The 246 field is repeatable, so add as many 246 tags as you think are needed. Don’t get too carried away, though. The general rule is to focus on the first 5 words of the title. It’s not necessary to add a 246 for every possible combination.

Always omit any leading articles (A, An, or The) since there is no indicator in the 246 to alert the system about nonfiling characters.

Unlike the 245 field, the 246 does not end with a period. If subfields are used, such as b, n, or p, be sure to precede the subfield with the correct punctuation.

The first indicator in these examples is a 3, which means the field is indexed (searchable) but not displayed. Since the 246 field simply repeats what is in the title proper in a varying form, there is no need to display it. The second indicator is blank since we’re just spelling out abbreviations and numbers or repeating the same title in a slightly varied form.

Some examples of when to use a 246 field

  • Add a 246 to spell out abbreviations:
    245 10 |a Magic Pickle vs. the Egg Poacher
    246 3   |a Magic Pickle verses the Egg Poacher

    245 10 |a St. Albans fire
    246 3   |a Saint Albans fire
  • If there are letters or initials with separating punctuation (hyphens, slashes, periods), add a 246 without the separating punctuation:
    245 10 |a Raising chickens as easy as A-B-C
    246 3   |a Raising chickens as easy as ABC
  • If there is an ampersand (&) in the title proper, add a 246 replacing it with the word “and”.
    245 1   |a Jack & Jill
    246 3   |a Jack and Jill
  • If there are Roman numerals in a title proper, add a 246 with the Arabic numbers and another with the spelled out form:
    245 14 |a The brave men of World War II
    246 3   |a Brave men of World War 2
    246 3   |a Brave men of World War two
  • If there are Arabic numbers in the 245 field, add a title added entry for the spelled out version. If the title proper contains a spelled out number, add a 246 for the Arabic one:
    245 10 |a 526 poems
    246 3   |a Five hundred twenty-six poems.
    245 14 |a The first ten years of freedom

    246 3   |a First 10 years of freedom
    245 10 |a Bob’s #1 herbal cure
    246 3   |a Bob’s number one herbal cure
  • If your patrons search for television shows by season, you may want to add 246 fields for the alternative ways of expressing the season numeration:
    245 14 |a The golden girls. |n The complete second season
    246 3   |a Golden girls. |n The complete 2nd season
    246 3   |a Golden girls. |n Season 2
  • If a title word could have an alternative form, add a 246 if you think a patron might search by it:
    245 10 |a Knitwit
    246 3   |a Knit wit

    245 10 |a Braveheart
    246 3   |a Brave Heart
  • Add a 246 to spell out contractions:
    245 10 |a Don’t tell mom
    246 3   |a Do not tell mom
  • If there are signs or symbols in one of the first 5 words of a title proper, add a title added entry for the spelled out version:
    245 10 |a Information @ your fingertips
    246 3   |a Information at your fingertips

A note about dates: Do not add a 246 spelling out a date. However, if a year is expressed in Roman numerals, add a 246 using the Arabic form.
Originally published on April 5, 2012.


Tip #75: Punctuation in the 245: subfields n and p

Subfields ‘n’ (number of part or section) and ‘p’ (name of part or section) often appear in the 245 field for videorecordings, where they are used to identify episodes or seasons of television series. These subfields can also be used in MARC records for books when a series statement is inappropriate. This happens whenever the name of the part (the book) doesn’t make sense when separated from the common title (what would otherwise be the series).

Punctuation for these fields often needs corrected when importing or editing MARC records:
Subfield ‘n’ is always preceded by a period–

245 10 |a Inside the jewelry box. |n Volume 2 : |b a collector’s guide to costume jewelry : identification and values / |c Ann Mitchell Pitman.

245 00 |a Primal grill with Steven Raichlen. |n Volume one |h [videorecording] / |c a production of Maryland Public Television in association with,,,,

Subfield ‘p’ is preceded by a period only if it follows subfield ‘a’. If it follows subfield ‘n’, it is preceded by a comma–

245 00 |a Last of the summer wine. |p Vintage 1979 |h [videorecording] / |c written by Roy Clarke ; directed and produced by Sydney Lotterby.

245 00 |a Geochemical data from the departments of Choco and Antioquia, Colombia. |n Part B, |p Printout of analytical data |h [microform] / |c by U.S. Geological Survey Center for…

Notice that the first word of both subfields is always capitalized, whether preceded by a period or a comma.
Important: Because these subfields are considered part of the title proper, they appear before subfield ‘b’ as well as any GMD (subfield ‘h’)

Always consider repeating the contents of subfield ‘p’ in a title added entry (field 246) if you think a patron will search by those words–

245 00 |a Signing time! |n Volume 4, |p Family, feelings & fun |h [videorecording] / |c a Two Little Hands production ; created by Rachel de Azevedo Coleman…
246 3 |a Family, feelings & fun
246 3 |a Family, feelings and fun

Originally published on March 11, 2011.


Tip #70: Title Added Entries and the First 5 words of the Title Proper

The 246 field of the MARC record contains varying forms of the title of a work. If a title contains elements such as abbreviations, contractions, symbols or Roman numerals, catalogers can use this field to increase the odds that a patron will be able to locate the item in the OPAC.

The 246 field is repeatable, so add as many 246 tags as you think are needed. Don’t get too carried away, though. It’s not necessary to add a 246 for every possible combination.
Always omit any leading articles (A, An, or The) since there is no indicator in the 246 to alert the system about nonfiling characters.

The first indicator in these examples is a 3, which means the field is indexed (searchable) but not displayed. Since the 246 field simply repeats what is in the title proper in a varying form, there is no need to display it. The second indicator is blank since we’re just spelling out abbreviations and numbers.

If there’s an abbreviation in the first 5 words of a title proper, spell it out in a title added entry:

245 10 |a Magic Pickle vs. the Egg Poacher
246 3 |a Magic Pickle verses the Egg Poacher

245 10 |a St. Albans fire
246 3 |a Saint Albans fire

If there are Roman numerals in one of the first 5 words of a title proper, add a 246 with the Arabic numbers and another with the spelled out form:

245 14 |a The brave men of World War II
246 3 |a Brave men of World War 2
246 3 |a Brave men of World War two

If there are Arabic numbers in the first 5 words of the 245 field, add a title added entry for the spelled out version. If the title proper contains a spelled out number, add a 246 for the Arabic one:

245 10 |a 526 poems
246 3 |a Five hundred twenty-six poems.

245 14 |a The first ten years of freedom
246 3 |a First 10 years of freedom

If there are letters or initials with separating punctuation (hyphens, slashes, periods) in one of the first 5 words of a title proper, add a 246 without the separating punctuation.

245 10 |a Raising chickens as easy as A-B-C
246 3 |a Raising chickens as easy as ABC

If there is an ampersand (&) as one of the first 5 words in the title proper, add a 246 using the word “and”.

Dates: Do not add a 246 spelling out dates. However, if the dates are in Roman numerals, add a 246 using the Arabic numbers.

If one of the first 5 words of a title could have an alternative form, add a 246 if you think a patron might search by it:

245 10 |a Knitwit
246 3 |a Knit wit

245 10 |a Don’t tell mom
246 3 |a Do not tell mom

If there are signs or symbols in one of the first 5 words of a title proper, add a title added entry for the spelled out version:

245 10 |a Information @ your fingertips
246 3 |a Information at your fingertips

245 10 |a Bob’s #1 herbal cure
246 3 |a Bob’s number one herbal cure

This is just one of the uses of the 246 field. See Tip #51 (Sept. 2010) for use of the 246 with parallel titles. See Tip #18 (Jan. 2010) for use of the 246 and 740 fields in works with no collective title.
Originally published on February 4, 2011.


Tip #63: Multiple subtitles in the 245 field

Subfield ‘b’ is not repeatable in a 245 field. If you have an item with more than one parallel title, a parallel title and a subtitle, multiple subtitles, or more than one subsequent title, do not add another |b, but just separate the pieces of information with the appropriate preceding punctuation.

A parallel title is always preceded by a space-equals sign-space, a subtitle is always preceded by a space-colon-space, and a subsequent title is always preceded by a space-semicolon-space.

Examples:

245 10 |a World mythology : |b a beginner’s handbook : great myths and epics come to life / Donna Rice.
245 10 |a Traditions = |b Tradiciones = Traditionen / |c by Sandra Wintering.
245 10 |a On tour : |b 10 British jewelers in Germany and Australia = Auf Tournee : zehn britishe Goldschmiede in Deutschland und Australien.
245 14 |a The cat in the hat comes back |h [videorecording] ; |b There’s a wocket in my pocket ; Fox in socks.

Originally published on December 3, 2010.



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