Archive for the ‘Punctuation’ Category

Tip #102: Cheat Sheet for 007 field for DVDs and Blu-ray

The 007 field contains coded information about the physical characteristics of the material being cataloged. Evergreen catalogers mainly see 007 fields on bibliographic records for videos, sound recordings, and electronic resources. This field does not appear on MARC records for books.

The 007 is a fixed field, which means the contents are position dependent. In Evergreen, the subfield codes (|a, |b, |c, etc.) do not display. There are no indicators for the 007 field.

A typical 007 field for a DVD looks like this in Evergreen:

007 __ vd cvaizq

Note the space between the ‘d’ and ‘c’. That third position (subfield c) is undefined, so in order to keep all the codes in the correct slot, there has to be a blank space.

Here’s a cheat sheet for coding the 007 field for Blu-rays and DVDs:

Subfield a = v
Subfield b = d
Subfield c = blank space
Subfield d = c if in color; = b if black & white; = m if a combination
Subfield e = v if DVD; = s if Blu-ray; = z if HD DVD
Subfield f = a
Subfield g = i
Subfield h = z
Subfield i = s if stereo; = m if mono; = q if four or more channels; = k if mixed, such as a stereo and surround sound

Other examples:

007 __ vd bvaizm (An older, black and white movie)
007 __ vd csaizq (Blu-ray disc)

NOTE: A bibliographic record for an enhanced DVD will have a second 007 field because it is also an electronic resource. The first letter in that 007 field will be a ‘c’.

Visit the OCLC 007 Resource Page for more information about coding the 007 field for DVDs and Blu-ray discs.
Originally published on September 23, 2011.

Tip #99: Republication info in the 500 field

If your book is a reissue of a previously published edition by another publisher and the content has not changed, add this information as an Edition and History note. Look for republication information on the t.p. verso.

If your resource uses the words, ‘first published’ or ‘originally published’, begin the note with: “Originally published:” Otherwise, use the wording, “Previously published” at the beginning of your note.
Exception: Watch out for the words, “First published in _______”. In this case, use the words “Previously published” because it is unknown if the book was published elsewhere at an earlier date.

Add this Edition and History note above the 521 summary field and above any “Includes index.” or “Includes bibliographic references and index.” notes.

When entering republication information in the bibliographic record, use this standardized format: Place : Publisher, Date.


“Originally published by St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1999.”
500 Originally published: New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
“First published by Bywater Books, Ann Arbor, MI.”
500 Originally published: Ann Arbor, MI : Bywater Books.
“Previously published in Boston by Houghton Mifflin, 2001.”
500 Previously published: Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

****Be sure to make a space before and after the second colon. As with all 500 notes, the line ends with a period.****

In the fixed fields, the republication date goes in the Date 2 slot. The DtSt field is coded ‘r’. Remember, though, this only applies if the content has not changed. If you don’t know the original publication date, as in the second example, put ‘uuuu’ in the Date 2 field.
Originally published on September 2, 2011.

Tip #91: What belongs in the 520 field?

The 520 Summary Note field provides scope and content information. Catalogers are encouraged to add a summary note to all records.

When composing a summary note keep it brief and objective. The summary can be a phrase rather than a complete sentence, but still put a period at the end. Remember the 520 tells the reader what a title is about, not how good it is. Don’t be too wordy—the patron doesn’t need the whole plot line, just the basic idea. When composing the summary, keep in mind that you are creating keywords used in searching.
Sometimes there’s a summary on the t.p. verso that didn’t get added to the record. It’s always worth checking, especially in children’s books.

If you quote or paraphrase another source in your summary, be sure to give credit. Either follow the summary with a dash-dash followed by the source (–Provided by publisher) or put the source in a subfield c (|cPublisher’s Weekly). There is no punctuation preceding the |c.

If a summary note found in a record does not meet the above criteria, please edit the summary. Notes furnished by the publisher are often just advertisements (“Amy Stewart follows her wildly successful national bestseller Wicked Plants with… ” or “Coin World 2011 Guide to U.S. Coins, Prices & Value Trends is your best source of information, whether you are an experienced collector or a beginner…” or “Beautiful packaging, ideal for gift giving The Hidden Gifts of Helping Others will leave you with the unshakable feeling that the world is an essentially good place”.) Delete over-the-top flattering adjectives. Remove references to previous works unless you really think they’re important. Try to condense sentences and take out some teaser lines (“Will Nell ever find true happiness?”).

However, please do not delete the entire 520 field! If you don’t have time or cannot figure out how to rewrite a summary note to fit the guidelines, just leave it alone in hopes that the next cataloger will either edit the summary or replace it with one from another source.

By the way, a 520 field is repeatable, so if you are merging records and find two notes equally good that provide different information, you can either combine them into one summary note or just copy one into a second 520 field. However, although keywords in both fields are indexed, only the first 520 will appear in the record summary of the OPAC.

Don’t worry about the first indicator of the 520 field. Evergreen displays the word ‘abstract’ to describe the 520 field no matter what, so just leave it blank. There is no second indicator for the 520 field.
Originally published on June 30, 2011.

Tip #87: Correct indicators for 490/8xx fields

While editing series statements in EI records, pay close attention to the indicators in the 490 and 8xx fields.

Here are the basic rules:

  • Use a 0 as the first indicator in the 490 if the record has no 8xx field.
    490 0_ Columbia classics (no 8xx field)
  • If there is an 8xx field, then the 490 has the first indicator of 1.
    490 1_ ‡a Anita Blake, vampire hunter ; ‡v bk. 20
    800 1_ ‡a Hamilton, Laurell K. ‡t Anita Blake, vampire hunter novel ; ‡v 20.
  • If you use an 800 field to trace the series (because everything in the series is written by the same author), the indicators are the same as the 100 field. This means if the 100 field is the typical author last name, first name format, the first indicator is 1.
    490 1_ ‡a A Fargo adventure ; ‡v bk. 3
    800 1_ ‡a Cussler, Clive. ‡t Fargo adventure ; ‡v 03.**
  • If you use a 830 field to trace the series (because the series is written by different authors), the second indicator represents the nonfiling characters, just like the second indicator of the 245 field. However, since the general rule is to omit initial articles from uniform titles, this indicator is pretty much always a 0.
    490 1_ ‡a An Avalon western
    830 _0 ‡a Avalon western.**
  • The 490 and 800 fields never have a second indicator. The 830 field never has a first indicator.

**Notice the leading articles are omitted from the series titles in the 8xx fields.

Not sure whether to use an 800 or an 830 field? Check for a Library of Congress Authority record. If the authority record gives the series name in a 130 field, then you know to use an 830.
Don’t forget the 490 gets a period at the end but the 8xx fields don’t.

For More about Series Statements:

Originally published on June 3, 2011.

Tip #82: Punctuation and subfield reminders for the 300 field

Catalogers often have to complete or correct the 300 field when importing and editing MARC records. This is especially true when working with CIP records, which do not include the physical description. Catalogers need to pay attention to subfields and punctuation when adding information to the 300 field.

Physical details such as illustrations, charts and maps, dimensions, and accompanying material information belong in their own subfields, not all together in subfield a. Also, each subfield is preceded by specific punctuation:

  • Subfield b is always preceded by a colon (: ‡b)
  • Subfield c is always preceded by a semicolon (; ‡c)
  • Subfield e is always preceded by a plus sign (+ ‡e)

Notice that the type of punctuation is determined by the subfield that comes after the punctuation, not the subfield in which the punctuation actually appears. This means that whether a colon or semicolon is used at the end of subfield ‘a’ is determined by whether or not it is followed by a subfield ‘b’.

Here are some examples:

300 ‡a272 p. : ‡bcol. ill., col. maps ; ‡c28 cm. (A colon is used after the pagination because it is followed by a subfield b)
300 ‡a548 p. ; ‡c28 cm. (A semicolon is used after the pagination because it is followed by a subfield c)
300 ‡axvi, 338 p. : ‡bill. ; ‡c24 cm. + ‡e1 sound disc (digital ; 4 3/4 in.)

Be sure to leave a space before the punctuation mark. Example: 28 p. (space) : ‡bgeneal. table (space) ; ‡c24 cm.

If you note maps, plates, charts, or other physical details in the 300, don’t forget to code them in the Ills (illustrations) Fixed Field.
Originally published on April 29, 2011.

Tip #75: Punctuation in the 245: subfields n and p

Subfields ‘n’ (number of part or section) and ‘p’ (name of part or section) often appear in the 245 field for videorecordings, where they are used to identify episodes or seasons of television series. These subfields can also be used in MARC records for books when a series statement is inappropriate. This happens whenever the name of the part (the book) doesn’t make sense when separated from the common title (what would otherwise be the series).

Punctuation for these fields often needs corrected when importing or editing MARC records:
Subfield ‘n’ is always preceded by a period–

245 10 |a Inside the jewelry box. |n Volume 2 : |b a collector’s guide to costume jewelry : identification and values / |c Ann Mitchell Pitman.

245 00 |a Primal grill with Steven Raichlen. |n Volume one |h [videorecording] / |c a production of Maryland Public Television in association with,,,,

Subfield ‘p’ is preceded by a period only if it follows subfield ‘a’. If it follows subfield ‘n’, it is preceded by a comma–

245 00 |a Last of the summer wine. |p Vintage 1979 |h [videorecording] / |c written by Roy Clarke ; directed and produced by Sydney Lotterby.

245 00 |a Geochemical data from the departments of Choco and Antioquia, Colombia. |n Part B, |p Printout of analytical data |h [microform] / |c by U.S. Geological Survey Center for…

Notice that the first word of both subfields is always capitalized, whether preceded by a period or a comma.
Important: Because these subfields are considered part of the title proper, they appear before subfield ‘b’ as well as any GMD (subfield ‘h’)

Always consider repeating the contents of subfield ‘p’ in a title added entry (field 246) if you think a patron will search by those words–

245 00 |a Signing time! |n Volume 4, |p Family, feelings & fun |h [videorecording] / |c a Two Little Hands production ; created by Rachel de Azevedo Coleman…
246 3 |a Family, feelings & fun
246 3 |a Family, feelings and fun

Originally published on March 11, 2011.

Tip #73: Multiple Places of Publication in the 260 Field

Sometimes multiple places of publication are listed on the title page. If a United States location is on the list, but not first, always enter the first place given in the 260 and then add the U.S. location in a second subfield ‘a’.


On the title page:
Dorling Kindersley
London, Toronto, New York

260 |a London ; |a New York : |b Dorling Kindersley, |c 1993.

A second subfield ‘a’ is always preceded by a semicolon. Note that there is a space between ‘London’ and the semicolon and a space between ‘New York’ and the colon.
Originally published on February 25, 2011.

Tip #63: Multiple subtitles in the 245 field

Subfield ‘b’ is not repeatable in a 245 field. If you have an item with more than one parallel title, a parallel title and a subtitle, multiple subtitles, or more than one subsequent title, do not add another |b, but just separate the pieces of information with the appropriate preceding punctuation.

A parallel title is always preceded by a space-equals sign-space, a subtitle is always preceded by a space-colon-space, and a subsequent title is always preceded by a space-semicolon-space.


245 10 |a World mythology : |b a beginner’s handbook : great myths and epics come to life / Donna Rice.
245 10 |a Traditions = |b Tradiciones = Traditionen / |c by Sandra Wintering.
245 10 |a On tour : |b 10 British jewelers in Germany and Australia = Auf Tournee : zehn britishe Goldschmiede in Deutschland und Australien.
245 14 |a The cat in the hat comes back |h [videorecording] ; |b There’s a wocket in my pocket ; Fox in socks.

Originally published on December 3, 2010.

Tip #55: Series Statements & Added Entries

490 Field (Series Statement)

  • The 1st indicator signals whether or not the series is traced with an added entry (8xx field). Use a 1 if the series is traced and a 0 if it is not. In other words, if there is an 8xx field, the first indicator is 1. If there is no 8xx field, the first indicator is 0.
  • Type the name of the series exactly as it appears on the item in hand.
  • If you add numeration information, this belongs in a subfield v which is always preceded by a semicolon.
    • There is a space between the last word of the series name and the semicolon.
    • Use the designation for the numbering as it appears on the item, abbreviating per AACR2 rules (bk., v., no.)
    • Convert all non-Arabic numbering (Third, IV, etc.) into Arabic numbers.
  • If the source of all or part of the series information is not the item itself, put the appropriate portion of the statement in brackets and add a 500 note indicating the source of the information. The 500 note is important not just for the source of the series name but also for the numeration since different sources (NoveList, author websites, Fantastic Fiction) often number the same series differently.
  • There is no period at the end of the 490 field.

****For information about when and why to trace a series, see pages 2.18-2.21 of the EI Cataloging Procedures Manual. This subject is also covered in the Evergreen Indiana Advanced Cataloging class****

8xx Fields (Series Added Entries)

  • If the first indicator of the 490 field is a 1, there must be an 8xx field. (There should never be an 8xx field on a record that has a 490 field with a 0 as the first indicator. )
  • Use an 800 field if all parts of the series are by the same author. If this is not true, use an 830 field.
  • Indicators:
    • 800 field: The indicators are the same as the record’s 100 field.
    • 830 field: There is no 1st indicator. The second indicator reflects the nonfiling characters, just like the second indicator of the 245 field.
  • The 800 field contains both the author name and the series title. Use the same name subfields as in the 100 field. The established series title belongs in subfield t, which is preceded by a period unless the title follows and open date for the author.
  • Series numeration belongs in subfield v, which is preceded by a semicolon.
    • Do not use a designation for the numbering.
    • Numbers 1-9 should be added as: 01, 02, 03, 04, etc.
  • Even if some or all of the information in the 490 is bracketed, do not bracket the 8xx field.
  • The 830 field never contains a personal name, only the established series title.
  • Both the 800 and 830 fields end with a period.


490 1_ |a Women’s murder club
800 1_ |a Patterson, James, |d 1947- |t Women’s murder club.

490 1_ |a Fargo adventure ; |v [2]
500 __ |a Series numeration from Fantastic Fiction.
800 1_ |a Cussler, Clive. |t Fargo adventures ; |v 02.

490 0_ |a Longarm ; |v 382

490 0_ |a Thorndike Press large print basic

490 1_ |a Voyagers ; |v bk. 4
800 1_ |a Bova, Ben, |d 1932- |t Voyagers ; |v 04.

490 1_ |a Harlequin romance ; |v #4191

490 0_ |a Mediterranean dads
830 _0 |a Harlequin romance ; |v 4191.

Remember, series statements do not belong in the 245 field. Patrons can now easily view the series information in the 490 and 8xx fields when searching the Evergreen catalog.

Check OCLC Bib Formats and Standards ( ) for additional information and examples.
Originally published on October 1, 2010.

Tip #44: Subject subdivision subfields v, x, y, and z

When adding subject headings to your resource, be sure to use the correct subfields. There are four subdivision subfields to choose from:

  • v : Form subdivision. Use v when describing the kind of material or genre of the resource. The most common subdivision subfield v is ‘Fiction’. It is usually the last subdivision subfield in a field.
    • 650 0 |a Actors |z United States |v Biography.
    • 651 0 |a North Carolina |v Guidebooks.
  • x : General subdivision. This is the subdivision subfield for general topical terms that narrow the scope of the subject heading. If your term explains what the resource is about, then it belongs in a subfield x.
    • 650 0 |a Men |x Health and hygiene.
  • y : Chronological subdivision. If your term narrows the scope of the subject heading by defining the time period, use y instead of x.
    • 651 0 |a Chicago (Ill.) |x History |y 19th century.
  • z : Geographic subdivision. Use z if the subdivision is a location.
    • 650 0 |a Search and rescue operations |z Bering Sea.

Caution: Not every date belongs in subdivision subfield y|:

  • If the date defines when a work was written, then it belongs in subfield v.
    • 600 00 |a Gautama Buddha |v Biography |v Early works to 1800.
  • If the date is used to define a specific event rather than narrow the scope of your resource, it also does not belong in subfield y.
    • 650 0 |a World War, 1939-1945 |x Research |v Fiction.

Note: Older MARC records may contain form subdivisions in a subfield x. When editing records in Evergreen, these should be changed to v.

Reminder: The first word in each subdivision is capitalized, and the last subdivision is followed by a period.
Originally published on July 16, 2010.

See Also


MARC Fields