Posts Tagged ‘245’

Tip #131: Multiple authors & the ‘Rule of Three’

If your resource lists three or fewer authors on the title page:

  • the first named person or corporate body is the main entry and appears in the 1xx field
  • the first indicator in the 245 field is a 1
  • each of the other authors are added entries appearing in 7xx fields


Title: Volunteer vacations : short-term adventures that will benefit you and others (by) Bill McMillon, Doug Cutchins, and Anne Geissinger.
100 1_ a| McMillon, Bill, |d 1942-
245 10 a| Volunteer vacations : |b short-term adventures that will benefit you and others / |c Bill McMillon, Doug Cutchins, and Anne Geissinger.
700 1_ a| Cutchins, Doug.
700 1_ a| Geissinger, Anne.

However, if there are more than three authors and principal responsibility is not attributed to anyone:

  • there is no 1xx field
  • the title is the main entry (245 field, first indicator 0)
  • only the first author listed on the title page is named in the statement of responsibility (245, subfield c): “Joe Jones … [et al.].”
  • there is an added entry (7xx) only for the first named person or body responsible.


Title: American Icon: the fall of Roger Clemens and the rise of steroids in America’s pastime (by) Teri Thompson, Nathaniel Vinton, Michael O’Keeffe, and Christian Red.
(no 100 field)
245 00 a| American icon : |b the fall of Roger Clemens and the rise of steroids in America’s pastime / |c Teri Thompson … [et al.].
700 1_ a| Thompson, Teri.

Sometimes there are more than 3 authors but one is singled out as the primary contributor. One name may be in larger print, bold type, or separated from the other authors by the word “with”, as in “Thomas Patterson with Margaret Robinson, Sarah Rice, and Timothy Hubert”. In these cases, the primary author’s name goes in a 100 field and the rest belong in 700 fields. Of course, if there’s more than three secondary authors, list the first one followed by the .[et al.] and only put that name in a 700.
Originally published on April 27, 2012.

Tip #128: Adding 246 fields to help patrons locate materials

The 246 field of the MARC record contains varying forms of the title of a work. If a title contains elements such as abbreviations, contractions, compound words, symbols, or numbers, catalogers can use this field to increase the odds that a patron will be able to locate the material in the Evergreen database.
The 246 field is repeatable, so add as many 246 tags as you think are needed. Don’t get too carried away, though. The general rule is to focus on the first 5 words of the title. It’s not necessary to add a 246 for every possible combination.

Always omit any leading articles (A, An, or The) since there is no indicator in the 246 to alert the system about nonfiling characters.

Unlike the 245 field, the 246 does not end with a period. If subfields are used, such as b, n, or p, be sure to precede the subfield with the correct punctuation.

The first indicator in these examples is a 3, which means the field is indexed (searchable) but not displayed. Since the 246 field simply repeats what is in the title proper in a varying form, there is no need to display it. The second indicator is blank since we’re just spelling out abbreviations and numbers or repeating the same title in a slightly varied form.

Some examples of when to use a 246 field

  • Add a 246 to spell out abbreviations:
    245 10 |a Magic Pickle vs. the Egg Poacher
    246 3   |a Magic Pickle verses the Egg Poacher

    245 10 |a St. Albans fire
    246 3   |a Saint Albans fire
  • If there are letters or initials with separating punctuation (hyphens, slashes, periods), add a 246 without the separating punctuation:
    245 10 |a Raising chickens as easy as A-B-C
    246 3   |a Raising chickens as easy as ABC
  • If there is an ampersand (&) in the title proper, add a 246 replacing it with the word “and”.
    245 1   |a Jack & Jill
    246 3   |a Jack and Jill
  • If there are Roman numerals in a title proper, add a 246 with the Arabic numbers and another with the spelled out form:
    245 14 |a The brave men of World War II
    246 3   |a Brave men of World War 2
    246 3   |a Brave men of World War two
  • If there are Arabic numbers in the 245 field, add a title added entry for the spelled out version. If the title proper contains a spelled out number, add a 246 for the Arabic one:
    245 10 |a 526 poems
    246 3   |a Five hundred twenty-six poems.
    245 14 |a The first ten years of freedom

    246 3   |a First 10 years of freedom
    245 10 |a Bob’s #1 herbal cure
    246 3   |a Bob’s number one herbal cure
  • If your patrons search for television shows by season, you may want to add 246 fields for the alternative ways of expressing the season numeration:
    245 14 |a The golden girls. |n The complete second season
    246 3   |a Golden girls. |n The complete 2nd season
    246 3   |a Golden girls. |n Season 2
  • If a title word could have an alternative form, add a 246 if you think a patron might search by it:
    245 10 |a Knitwit
    246 3   |a Knit wit

    245 10 |a Braveheart
    246 3   |a Brave Heart
  • Add a 246 to spell out contractions:
    245 10 |a Don’t tell mom
    246 3   |a Do not tell mom
  • If there are signs or symbols in one of the first 5 words of a title proper, add a title added entry for the spelled out version:
    245 10 |a Information @ your fingertips
    246 3   |a Information at your fingertips

A note about dates: Do not add a 246 spelling out a date. However, if a year is expressed in Roman numerals, add a 246 using the Arabic form.
Originally published on April 5, 2012.

Tip #125: Checking the Authority Record for the 100 field

Sometimes the author’s name on a book is in a slightly different form or is spelled differently than it appears in the 100 field of the MARC record. That’s because the 100 field contains the author’s name in the form established in the national authority file, which does not necessarily correspond with how the author or publisher decide to note the author’s name on the book.

This variance is often found with with Asian names and names from other languages using different alphabets. There are specific rules used for transliterating names from other alphabets into our alphabet.

Using the name from the authority file ensures that all the author’s books are connected in the catalog, even when the name is listed differently on different works. Using the authorized name on the spine label ensures that works by that author are grouped together on the shelf.

The name in the 245 field should always match the title page, but the 100 field may or may not match what is in the book.

If you are concerned that the 100 field might not be correct, or if you are originally cataloging a work, look up the name in the authority files on the Library of Congress Authorities website. The procedure is essentially the same as for searching for authorized series names (see Tip #123) except select “Name Authority Headings” as the search type. Try the help function if you have trouble with your search. When you get to the authority file, the authorized name will be in the 100 field. The 400 fields contain ‘see references’ which are the names associated with the author but not the established name that belongs in the 100 field. If you typed in a name that is not the authorized name, you’ll see the name you typed in one of these fields. When you copy the name from the 100 field into your record, be sure to also copy the indicator and any subfields.


100 1 $a Sin, Kyŏng-suk.
245 10 $a Please look after mom / $c Kyung-sook Shin ; translated from the Korean by Chi-Young Kim.

100 1 $a Ōkami, Mineko.
245 10 $a Dragon Knights. $n Volume 2 / $c Mineko Ohkami.

Originally published on March 16, 2012.

Tip #121: The General Material Designator (GMD) in Evergreen

The General Material Designator, usually referred to as the GMD, describes the class of material to which your resource belongs. The GMD appears in the 245 field following the title proper, in a subfield h.
The GMD is not a term that individual catalogers can “make up”. GMDs to be used in Evergreen are restricted to those found in the AACR2. U.S. libraries use list two under Rule 1.12.

GMDs are not used in Evergreen for print items unless they happen to be a component of a kit.

Below are some of the common classes of materials found in the Evergreen database and the correct GMD for each:

Books on CD: [sound recording]
Musical CDs: [sound recording]
DVDs: [videorecording]
VHS tapes: [videorecording]
Blu-Ray: [videorecording]
CD-Rom: [electronic resource]
DVD-Rom: [electronic resource]
Playaways: [electronic resource]
Kits: [kit]

If appropriate, add a GMD to the 245 field, in a subfield h. Subfield h follows the title proper but precedes subfield b. This means a GMD goes in between the title and subtitle. Subfields n and p are also part of the title proper, so the GMD follows these subfields.

Here are some examples:

245 04 $a The Partridge family. $n The complete first season $h [videorecording] : $b come on get happy.
245 00 $a Cougar town. $n The complete first season $h [videorecording] / $c ABC Studios.
245 00 $a Wolverine $h [videorecording] : $b chasing the phantom.
245 10 $a Forge $h [electronic resource] / $c Laurie Halse Anderson.
245 00 $a Super street fighter IV $h [electronic resource].
245 10 $a Theodore Boone $h [sound recording] : $b kid lawyer / $c John Grisham.

Always place the GMD in brackets. There is no punctuation preceding the |h and the GMD is always in all lowercase.

Do not ‘enhance’ a GMD by adding a descriptive term. The GMDs [videorecording DVD], [videorecording Blu-Ray], and [sound recording CD] should not be used in Evergreen. Patrons and staff can look at the physical description or edition statement in the record summary to determine if a videorecording is a videodisc, sound disc, sound cassette, videocassette, or Blu-Ray.

Many records have migrated into Evergreen with incorrect GMDs. If you see [DVD], [videodisc], [videorecording DVD], [large print], [book] or anything else that is not AACR2 approved, please take the time to correct the record.

Information about using General Material Designators can be found in Chapters 2 and 3 of the Evergreen Procedures Manual.
Originally published on February 17, 2012.

Tip #119: Names with multiple initials – space or no space?

Question: When creating or editing MARC records, is it J.K. Rowling or J. K. Rowling? Is it Rowling, J.K. or Rowling, J.K.?

In the 100, 700, or 800 field, always enter a space between initials of a personal name: Rowling, J. K.
In the 245 field, type the name with no spaces between initials: J.K. Rowling.


100 1_ |a Griffin, W. E. B. (spaces between initials)
245 14 |a The traffickers / |c W.E.B. Griffin and William E. Butterworth IV. (no spaces)
100 1_ |a Beaton, M. C. (spaces between initials)
245 14 |a There goes the bride / |c M.C. Beaton (no spaces)

In contrast, never put spaces between initials of a corporate name, no matter where it appears in the record.


110 2_ |a J.C. Penney. (no spaces)
260 __ |a New York : |b W.W. Norton, |c 2001. (no spaces)

The basic rule in a nutshell: Anytime a personal or corporate name is in direct order, there are no spaces between the initials. If the format is last name, first name, then put a space between the initials.
Originally published on February 3, 2012.

Tip #108: Cataloging Equipment as Realia

Libraries that circulate AV or other equipment to patrons, staff, or departments can easily create Equipment records in Evergreen. Tape recorders, CD players, projectors, screens, Kindles and Nooks are examples of equipment often cataloged.

To get started, load the Realia MARC record template: Click ‘Cataloging’ on the toolbar, then select ‘Create New Marc Record’. Use the pull-down to load the K_realia template.

Note that the fixed field Type code is r. This causes a yellow box icon to display in the OPAC to symbolize a three dimensional object. The template already has the necessary GMD ‘[realia]’ typed in the 245, subfield h.

Name the piece of equipment in the 245 and fill in as many of the other variable fields as appropriate. If known, use the 260 field for the place and date of manufacture and the name of the manufacturer. Include accompanying materials such as cables and adapters in the 300 field, subfield e. Use a 028 field for the model number. Add 500 notes for more detailed descriptions and other information.

In the 599 field, type EQUIPMENT RECORD in all caps.

When the record is complete, click ‘Create record’. In the Copy editor, select ‘realia’ as the circulation modifier. Under ‘Circulate as Type’, select ‘r-Three-dimensional artifact or naturally occurring object’.

If the equipment circulates to your patrons, make the record visible in the OPAC. However, if the equipment only circulates to staff or departments, or doesn’t circulate at all, be sure to select ‘No’ for ‘OPAC Visible?’ Although the record will not appear in the OPAC, your staff will still ‘see’ the record in the staff client.


028 51 $a RP3504-A $b RCA
028 51 $a U060020D12 $b Audiovox
245 00 $a Portable cassette recorder and player |h [realia].
260 __ $a Taiwan: $b RCA, $c 2007.
300 __$ a 1 personal portable recorder and cassette player in plastic container 10 1/2 x 7 x 2 1/2 in. + $e 1 adapter, 1 microphone, 1 user manual.
538 __$ a Adapter is an Audiovox class 2 power supply.
500 __$ a Includes 120 minute dictating cassette. Batteries are not included.
500 __$ a Recorder model #RP3504-A ; adapter model #U060020D12.

If you are cataloging a Kindle, Nook, or other electronic reader, first check Evergreen for an existing record. If there isn’t one, try searching on the ISBN or UPI number to see if one is available for import before creating an original record.

You can use the realia record template for other items your library circulates such as puzzles, puppets, rock collections and games.
Originally published on November 4, 2011.

Tip #96: Audiobook cataloging reminders

  • In the fixed fields, the type is always ‘i’, for nonmusical sound recording.
  • Use the GMD ‘sound recording’ in the 245 for all audiobooks, whether on cassette or CD.
    Example: 245 10$a Death of a witch $h [sound recording] / $c M.C. Beaton.
  • The library edition and the regular (trade) edition of an audiobook belong on separate records. If the ISBN for the wrong edition is on your record, take it out.
  • Add series information, if applicable.
  • The most common 5xx note fields go in this order:
    500 __ Series numeration from Fantastic Fiction. (Series note)
    511 0_ Performed by Scott Brick. (Cast)
    500 __ Unabridged. (Edition and history)
    500 __ Compact discs. (Physical edition)
    520 __ Hamish Macbeth, Scotland’s most laconic and low-tech policeman, investigates the death of a woman with seemingly unearthly powers. (Summary note)
  • Use the Library of Congress Genre/Form heading “Audiobooks”.
    Example: 655 _7 Audiobooks. $2 lcgft

See p. 2.34-2.37 of the EI Cataloging Procedures Guide and the Tip of the Week # 28 (March 2010) for more information about separating library and regular editions of audiobooks.
Originally published on August 5, 2011.

Tip #88: Statement of Responsibility for DVDs

The credits on a DVD container can go on forever, so catalogers have to decide whose name gets to go in the 245 subfield c and who winds up in the 508 note field when cataloging DVDs.

The general rule is that the director, producer and writer/screenwriter go in the statement of responsibility. However, if someone else has a major role in creating the film, such as the director of animation for an animated film, the songwriter for musicals, or the choreographer for ballet, they can also be included in the 245. The sponsor (‘Moneybags Inc. presents’) and production company (‘an XYZ production’) are assumed to have creative responsibility so they belong in the 245, too. The production company and, if applicable, sponsor are listed first, followed by the directors, producers, and writers in the order given on the source. Companies and individuals listed in the 245 should be traced with a 7xx field.

Anyone with creative input other than the cast that seems important can be put in a 508 (Credit Note). Don’t include everyone else who is listed on the container, just the more important. For instance, list the director of photography but not the camera operators. Names appearing in a 508 are not usually traced.
The ‘Rule of Three’ applies to the 245 field: if more than 3 persons or bodies perform the same function, list only the first followed by ‘…[et al.]’. If the others listed are well known and you think should be included in the record, you can put them in the 508. The ‘Rule of Three’ doesn’t apply to the 508 field.
The cast members whose names dominate the list on the container go in the 511 field (Performer Note). Narrators and hosts go in this field, also. If you’re listing cast members, the first indicator is a 1, if listing narrators or hosts, use a 0.

In the bib record, the 511 field appears above the 508. (They are not in numerical order.)

See Tip of the Week #14 (Nov. 2009) for a 5xx field order cheat sheet for DVDs.
Originally published on June 10, 2011.

Tip #85:Statement of Responsibility (245 subfield c) for Books

Always transcribe the Statement of Responsibility exactly as it appears on the the chief source of information. When cataloging books, this is almost always the title page.

If the title page says, for instance, “by Elizabeth Peters”, then enter “by Elizabeth Peters” in the 245.
If the title page just says “Elizabeth Peters”, please do not add the word “by” in the 245.
Here are some other pointers about the Statement of Responsibility:

  • Include only statements of responsibility regarding the artistic or intellectual content. Don’t include consultants or market analysts, for example.
  • If more than one Statement of Responsibility appears on the title page, for different functions such as a writer and editor or writer and illustrator, transcribe them in the order they appear and separate each function with a space-semicolon-space. Example: “by Susan Brockman ; foreward by Elliott Mason ; illustrated by Michael Ison”.
  • If needed, add wording about the type of responsibility involved (editor, photographer, etc.) but put the wording in brackets. Examples: “by Maxine Edwards and [illustrated by] Doug Fissel”, or “[edited by] Bob Rowlings”.
  • If a statement of responsibility appears someplace other than the title page, such as the cover or spine, you can put it in the 245 but enclose it in brackets and add a 500 note to explain where the information came from.

Don’t forget subfield c of the 245 field is always preceded by a forward slash.

In general, don’t include titles (Dr., PhD, etc.) or qualifications (Director of English Studies). However, there are some exceptions. For instance, keep the ‘Dr.’ in front of Dr. Seuss because skipping it would just leave a surname, and keep titles if they are noble ones or a British term of honor.

Include any suffix indicating relationship, such as “Jr.”, “Sr.”, and “IV”.

Transcribe a Statement of Responsibility even if no person is named. Examples: “by the editors of Time”, or “translated from the German”.

Don’t forget to apply the “rule of 3”: If more than 3 people are listed for the same function and all are given equal billing, give only the first person and “…[et al.].” This means if the book was “edited by Bill Rogers, Tim Bullock, William Reed, and Margaret Manning”, the record would read “edited by Bill Rogers …[et al.]. However, if the title page was phrased “edited by Bill Rogers with Tim Bullock, William Reed, and Margaret Manning, the Statement of Responsibility would be transcribed as it appears on the title page.
Originally published on May 20, 2011.

Tip #75: Punctuation in the 245: subfields n and p

Subfields ‘n’ (number of part or section) and ‘p’ (name of part or section) often appear in the 245 field for videorecordings, where they are used to identify episodes or seasons of television series. These subfields can also be used in MARC records for books when a series statement is inappropriate. This happens whenever the name of the part (the book) doesn’t make sense when separated from the common title (what would otherwise be the series).

Punctuation for these fields often needs corrected when importing or editing MARC records:
Subfield ‘n’ is always preceded by a period–

245 10 |a Inside the jewelry box. |n Volume 2 : |b a collector’s guide to costume jewelry : identification and values / |c Ann Mitchell Pitman.

245 00 |a Primal grill with Steven Raichlen. |n Volume one |h [videorecording] / |c a production of Maryland Public Television in association with,,,,

Subfield ‘p’ is preceded by a period only if it follows subfield ‘a’. If it follows subfield ‘n’, it is preceded by a comma–

245 00 |a Last of the summer wine. |p Vintage 1979 |h [videorecording] / |c written by Roy Clarke ; directed and produced by Sydney Lotterby.

245 00 |a Geochemical data from the departments of Choco and Antioquia, Colombia. |n Part B, |p Printout of analytical data |h [microform] / |c by U.S. Geological Survey Center for…

Notice that the first word of both subfields is always capitalized, whether preceded by a period or a comma.
Important: Because these subfields are considered part of the title proper, they appear before subfield ‘b’ as well as any GMD (subfield ‘h’)

Always consider repeating the contents of subfield ‘p’ in a title added entry (field 246) if you think a patron will search by those words–

245 00 |a Signing time! |n Volume 4, |p Family, feelings & fun |h [videorecording] / |c a Two Little Hands production ; created by Rachel de Azevedo Coleman…
246 3 |a Family, feelings & fun
246 3 |a Family, feelings and fun

Originally published on March 11, 2011.

See Also


MARC Fields